X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is the most common disorder among primary immunodeficiency diseases, which is caused by mutations in the cytoplasmic Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene, characterized by lack of mature, circulating B lymphocytes, hypogammaglobulinemia, and recurrent bacterial infections. Mutations in BTK are highly diverse. In this study, genetic analysis was performed on BTK to realize the feature of gene mutation of XLA in Mainland of China.
Seven patients from 7 different families were enrolled in the analysis. RT-PCR was employed to reverse transcript total RNA and 8 couples of primers were designed for PCR. PCR products were sequenced and the mutation sites were identified.
Seven completely different mutations were identified in the 7 patients. All the 7 mutations located at BTK coding region. Three of the 7 mutations were located in pleckstrin homology functional area, 2 mutations located in BTK area, and in other 2 cases at Src homology 2 and Src homology 3 regions, respectively. The mutations in 2 of 7 cases were in exon 18, and the others were in exon 2, 5, 6, 8 and 10, respectively. The types of mutation included 3 missense (L11P, I590F and Y591S), two nonsense (W281X, and Q234X) mutations resulting in premature stop codons. A 10-base pair nucleotides duplicated insertion located between the nucleotide 596 and 597 resulting in frameshift, and a 8 base pair deletion at the nucleotide position 472 resulting in frameshift. Four of the 7 mutations are novel mutation types and have not been reported. Four of 7 mothers were analyzed, 3 of them were carrier and 1 was normal.
The patients enrolled in this study had classical clinical features of XLA. All the 7 identified mutations located at BTK coding region and 4 of them were novel mutations. Genetic analysis can be used for diagnosis of XLA and distinguish it from other hypogammaglobulinemia.
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