Kidney Diseases (Total 2194160 Papers Found)

The Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (JSDT) guideline committee, chaired by Dr Y. Tsubakihara, presents the Japanese guidelines entitled "Guidelines for Renal Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease." These guidelines replace the "2004 JSDT Guidelines for Renal Anemia in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients," and contain new, additional guidelines for peritoneal dialysis (PD), non-dialysis (ND), and pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Chapter 1 presents reference values for diagnosing anemia ...
Renal function evaluation in the pediatric patient is generally based on scintigraphic examinations where a baseline gamma-camera renography is used to determine single kidney function, and diuresis renography is obtained to assess urinary drainage from the pelvicalyceal system. Magnetic resonance imaging also permits the evaluation of renal functional processes using fast dynamic sequences. Principally, an agent cleared by renal excretion is intravenously injected and its cortical uptake, paren ...
The recent discovery of the angiotensin II (Ang II)-breakdown enzyme, angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) 2, suggests the importance of Ang II degradation in hypertension. The present study explored the signaling mechanism by which ACE2 is regulated under hypertensive conditions. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry showed that ACE2 mRNA and protein expression levels were high, whereas ACE expression levels were moderate in both normal kidney and heart. In contrast, patients with hypertensio ...
BACKGROUND Candida species commonly cause urinary tract infection in infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. The purpose of this study was to describe the natural history of renal candidiasis as evidenced by sonography in infants with candiduria. METHODS The medical records of all infants who developed candiduria during their neonatal intensive care hospitalization between 1982 and 1993 were reviewed. Candiduria was defined as the isolation of Candida from (1) one or more specimens ...
OBJECTIVE To project the impact of population aging on total U.S. health care per capita costs from 2000 to 2050 and for the range of clinical areas defined by Major Practice Categories (MPCs). DATA SOURCES Secondary data: HealthPartners health plan administrative data; U.S. Census Bureau population projections 2000-2050; and MEPS 2001 health care annual per capita costs. STUDY DESIGN We calculate MPC-specific age and gender per capita cost rates using cross-sectional data for 2002-2003 and ...
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, including empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and canagliflozin, are now widely approved antihyperglycemic therapies. Because of their unique glycosuric mechanism, SGLT2 inhibitors also reduce weight. Perhaps more important are the osmotic diuretic and natriuretic effects contributing to plasma volume contraction, and decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures by 4 to 6 and 1 to 2 mm Hg, respectively, which may underlie cardiovascular and k ...
The effect of pravastatin on renal function in hypertensive patients with mild renal dysfunction and hyperlipidemia was examined. A total of 57 subjects given dihydropyridine calcium blockers were randomly assigned to placebo (n = 25) and pravastatin groups (n = 32). The period of study was 6 months. In the placebo group, lipid metabolism did not change throughout the study period, but the serum creatinine concentration (Scr) increased from a baseline of 1.6+/-0.07 mg/dl to 2.1+/-0.2 mg/dl in th ...
The question was addressed whether dietary phosphorus-induced nephrocalcinosis in rats is associated with impaired kidney function. Weanling female rats were fed purified diets containing either 0.4 or 0.6% (wt/wt) phosphorus for 28 d. The diet containing 0.6% phosphorus produced marked kidney calcification, as determined both by chemical analysis of kidney calcium and histological examination in kidney sections. Histological examination did not show calcification in stomach, lung, heart or thor ...
OBJECTIVE To test the safety and efficacy of fluoxetine in patients with renal failure on dialysis. METHOD Fourteen patients with major depression and end stage renal disease on hemodialysis were randomized into two groups for an eight-week study. Subjects as well as investigators were blinded as to which subject received fluoxetine and which placebo. Patients were carefully monitored concerning adverse events, serum fluoxetine and norfluoxetine levels, and psychological measurements of degree ...
It is often difficult to determine the cause of early or sporadic deaths in toxicity studies, making interpretation difficult. To help in the interpretation of early deaths, it is critical that the background incidence of factors contributing to death be recorded and archived. Information was gathered from the control groups of 20 CD-1 mouse carcinogenicity studies. Route of administration was either dietary or oral gavage, and animals were housed in groups of one to four in wired or solid botto ...
OBJECTIVE Evidence indicates that estrogen depresses hepatic lipid oxidation. We tested the hypothesis that estradiol (E(2)) treatment depresses transcription of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (Cpt 1) mRNA and increases adiposity. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES Six ovariectomized female rats were given a subcutaneous pellet of E(2) (5 mg/d), and six were given placebo. Rats were pair-fed by group for 18 days. Body composition was assessed chemically: mRNA for liver Cpt 1, adipose tissue unc ...
PURPOSE To develop and assess a technique for induction of C peptide-negative diabetes in adult nonhuman primates in preparation for preclinical investigation of type 1 diabetes treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS First, temporary embolization of the hepatic and gastric arteries was performed in 14 adult nonhuman primates (six cynomolgus, five rhesus, and three pigtail macaques). After embolization was confirmed with angiography, streptozotocin was injected at a dose of 50-70 mg/kg into the celi ...
Ischemic nephropathy describes progressive renal failure, defined by significantly reduced glomerular filtration rate, and may be due to renal artery stenosis (RAS), a narrowing of the renal artery. It is unclear whether ischemia is present during RAS since a decrease in renal blood flow (RBF), O(2) delivery, and O(2) consumption occurs. The present study tests the hypothesis that despite proportional changes in whole kidney O(2) delivery and consumption, acute progressive RAS leads to decreases ...
PURPOSE Concurrent adrenalectomy during renal surgery for renal cell carcinoma was once routine. More recent data suggest that adrenalectomy should be reserved for tumors 7 cm or greater, particularly those involving the upper pole. We evaluated the radiographic and pathological incidence of adrenal involvement in patients undergoing renal surgery for renal cell carcinoma 7 cm or greater. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients who underwent renal surgery for tumors 7 cm or greater between 1999 and 200 ...
Cyclosporin A pharmacokinetics was studied in rats with cisplatin-induced acute renal failure (ARF) using microemulsion preconcentrate (MEPC) and completely dissolved formulations. Although the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporin A was unchanged after intravenous administration, maximum concentration of cyclosporin A in ARF rats was significantly reduced to 608+/-62 and 999+/-189 ng/ml compared with 1720+/-142 and 1832+/-250 ng/ml in controls after oral administration of MEPC and completely dissolve ...
UNLABELLED Transurethral resection of urothelial carcinoma often results in tumor recurrence due to disseminated tumor cells. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to establish an orthotopic human bladder carcinoma mouse model using the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-overexpressing bladder carcinoma cell line EJ28 and to compare therapeutic efficacy of intravesically instilled alpha-particle-emitting (213)Bi-anti-EGFR-monoclonal antibody (m ...
An examination of the comparative nephrotoxicity in the tat of cisplatin, its hydrolysis product (mostlycis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl(H2O)]+ under the conditions applied), andcis-[Pt(NH3)2(guanosine)2]2+ revealed that these compounds differed significantly in the extent of renal damage they produced following their i.v. injection in Sprague-Dawley rats. The hydrolysis product was found to be the most toxic of the three complexes studied and produced nephrotoxicity at doses lower than those at which cisplatin ...
BACKGROUND Aliskiren is a relatively new oral direct renin inhibitor (DRI) that has been increasingly used for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy and hypertension. Its potential efficacy in nondiabetic chronic kidney diseases that are driven by renin-angiotensin system activation remains to be explored. METHODS From a teaching and regional hospital in Hong Kong between July 2009 and March 2010, patients with biopsy-proven immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) in whom the ratio of protein to c ...
  • James M. McKenney,
  • American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
  • 2005
PURPOSE The chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, dosage and administration, and place in therapy of rosuvastatin are reviewed. SUMMARY Rosuvastatin, the latest statin to receive approved labeling by the Food and Drug Administration, has shown superior efficacy in lowering low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. At daily doses of 5-40 mg, rosuvastatin produces mean reductions in plasma LDL cholesterol of 45-63%, statistically great ...
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to examine the influence of kidney disease and hemodialysis on the pharmacokinetics ofenfuvirtide. DESIGN An open-label, multicenter, parallel group study of HIV-1-infected patients with varying degrees of kidney dysfunction. METHODS A 90-mg dose of enfuvirtide was administered by subcutaneous injection to 3 groups of patients: group A, patients with normal kidney function; group B, patients with chronic kidney disease; and group C, patients with end-stage ...
Diastematomyelia is an uncommon spinal dysraphism with midline dorsoventral clefting of the spinal cord. Formation of syrinx cavity within the hemicord, vertebral anomalies and lipomas is known to be associated with diastematomyelia. We present an unusual case of a 4-month-old girl, who presented with diastematomyelia and terminal myelocystocele, and dilatation of the terminal portion of the spinal canal with formation of a cystic structure. Findings were confirmed by subsequent surgery and hist ...
PURPOSE Hypercalciuria is the most common cause of kidney stone disease and genetic factors have an important role in nearly half of these cases. Recently loss-of-function mutations of CYP24A1, the gene encoding vitamin D 24-hydroxylase, were identified in idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia. We describe the clinical and molecular basis of severe long-standing kidney stone disease in adults caused by CYP24A1 mutations. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three subjects from 2 Israeli families with nephrolith ...
Among 178 African children with nephrotic syndrome, membranous nephropathy was the commonest histological lesion (60 children; 34%). Fifty-seven (95%) of these 60 were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive, and 52 (86%) of these 57 were hepatitis B 'e' antigen (HBeAg)-positive. HBsAg was detected in only six (5%) and HBeAg in one (0.8%) of the 118 patients with non-membranous lesions. The risk of membranous nephropathy was 35 and 15 times higher in the 178 African children with nephrotic ...
Cardiorenal syndromes (CRS) are disorders of the heart and kidneys, whereby acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other. The management of heart failure and CRS requires an understanding not only of the pathophysiology linking these two organ systems, but also an appreciation of the pharmacological effects of agents targeting one organ and their influence on the other. For instance, treatment of cardiovascular diseases and risk factors may influ ...
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of caspofungin vs. liposomal amphotericin B in the treatment of suspected fungal infections in the UK. METHODS The cost-effectiveness of caspofungin vs. liposomal amphotericin B was evaluated using a decision-tree model. The decision tree was populated using both data and clinical definitions from published clinical studies. Model outcomes included success in terms of resolution of fever, baseline infection, absence of breakthrough infection, surviv ...
The effects of chronic kidney disease on baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and deficits in afferent and central components of the baroreflex were studied in juvenile and adult male Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK) and control Lewis rats under anesthesia (n=35). Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), aortic depressor nerve activity (ADNA), and RSNA were determined after pharmacological manipulation of BP. Responses to ADN stimulation (4.0 V, 2.0 ms, 1-24 Hz) were determine ...
BACKGROUND Obesity, metabolic syndrome (MS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are all becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. Body mass index (BMI) has traditionally been employed to identify overweight or obese individuals, yet multiple studies have yielded conflicting results when BMI was used to evaluate the association between obesity and CKD. AIMS The purpose of this large, population-based, multicentre study was to evaluate the associations of BMI and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with ...
The thymidine kinase (Tk) gene codes for a cytosolic protein involved in the pyrimidine nucleotide salvage pathway. A functional Tk gene is not necessary for cells in culture, and a naturally occurring Tk deficient phenotype has not been described in humans or animal models. In order to determine the biological significance of the Tk gene, we created Tk(-/-) knockout (KO) mice through homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells. Tk KO mice have shortened life spans compared with their ...
INTRODUCTION Previous studies using Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN)/RIFLE criteria to classify early initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) have defined it as the therapy started in less severe AKIN/RIFLE stages. Generally, these studies failed in demonstrating measurable benefits. METHODS We compared RRT initiation in critically ill patients and defined early or late RRT in reference to timing after stage 3 AKIN was met: patients beginning RRT within 24 hours after acute kidney inju ...
This analysis quantifies the population pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous and intravenous epoetin delta, an epoetin produced in a human cell line, in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease and estimates the effects of covariate factors on epoetin delta and epoetin alfa pharmacokinetic parameters. Erythropoietin serum concentration data, taken from a phase III study conducted in 60 patients aged 1 to 17 years, were best described by a 1-compartment model with first-order absorption and eli ...
The frequency of thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) is controversial. This study was undertaken to investigate the platelet count in 55 patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis and in 19 patients with CRF before hemodialysis had begun. In both groups platelet counts were similar and significantly reduced, 175,000 +/- 6,500 and 181,000 +/- 10,800 compared to 253,000 +/- 3,700/mm3 in the control (p less than 0.0001). 31% of hemodialysis patients ...
  • Bertram L. Kasiske, David C. Wheeler,
  • Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
  • 2014
Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) was founded in 2003 to fulfill a need for international cooperation and consolidation in the development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines. KDIGO has experienced a rapid growth in the development of guidelines, producing three guidelines in its first 6 years and another six in the last 3 years. In addition, it has held 12 global conferences on important issues in kidney disease and its treatment. A major effort is under way to su ...
Blood pressure reduction in hypertensive patients is a surrogate for the real therapeutic goal of reducing the risks consequent to hypertension. This surrogate is convenient but its use may have important therapeutic implications. Results of treatment with new antihypertensive agents, data from clinical trials, and insights into underlying mechanisms are reviewed. The overall success of antihypertensive therapy has been undeniable, but has reduced minimally the frequency of atherosclerosis and c ...
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin produced by ubiquitous Aspergilli, is carcinogenic, teratogenic, and nephrotoxic in both humans and animals. Our previous study found that OTA induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and resulted in G2 phase arrest in human gastric epithelium immortalized (GES-1) cells. DSBs can cause genomic instability, mutations, and neoplastic transformations, and improper repair of DSBs may lead to the development of cancer. Rad51 is a key protein in the homologous recombinat ...
The phenotype of HIV-1 gp120 envelope derived from renal epithelium and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with HIV-associated nephropathy was investigated in vitro. Chimeric viruses were derived from kidney or blood and used to infect primary CD4+T cells, cell lines expressing single co-receptors and a renal epithelial cell line HPT-1. HIV-1 variants derived from renal epithelium were dual tropic whereas simultaneously derived viruses from PBMC were R5-tropic. Utilization of ...
  • Thiagarajan Ramcharan, Arthur J. Matas,
  • American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons
  • 2002
Numerous studies with <20 years of follow-up have shown no significant long-term consequences of living kidney donation. However, hypertension and proteinuria have both been described; it is unknown whether either complication presages future kidney dysfunction. Between June 1, 1963, and December 31, 1979, we did 773 living donor kidney transplants for 715 recipients. We attempted to contact all donors to determine long-term outcome regarding their remaining kidney. We obtained information on ...
BACKGROUND It has been suggested that status as a 'non-dipper' determined from 24-h blood pressure (BP) recordings is associated with increased risk of end-organ damage but little is known about the consistency of dipper status in renal patients. The present post hoc analysis evaluated dipper/non-dipper status prospectively in a study on dosage of enalapril in progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3-5. METHODS In 34 patients, 24-h ambulatory BP (A&D TM2421) was measured at baseline a ...
The main source of vitamin D in a man is its synthesis in human skin. 7-Dehydrocholesterol converts into cholecalciferol--vitamin D3--as a result of UV radiation. Cholecalciferol hydroxylates in liver into 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D, calcidiol], which concentration in blood is a relevant indicator of the total of vitamin D in a human body. 25(OH)D hydroxylates in kidneys into 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D, calcitriol], which is considered an active metabolite of vitamin D. Epidemiologi ...
Injection of diltiazem (40 mg/kg/d) to gentamicin (75 mg/kg/d = G 75 or 100 mg/kg/d = G 100) treated rats enhances aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity. As a result of this combination, acute renal failure becomes systematic and is often irreversible. The lesion is of tubular origin and is characterized by a large increase in the urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (u-NAG) activity and its NAG-B isoenzyme level. The phenomenon is twice as marked with G 75 (u-NAG x 6.8, NAG-B x 2.2) as with ...
BACKGROUND Rising health care use among older people presents a challenge to medical care. Physical activity (PA) is beneficial; however, it is unknown if initiating PA among the very old reduces health service use. We examined the effects of changing PA levels on emergency room (ER) visits and hospitalization at ages 78 and 85. METHODS A representative sample (born 1920-1921) from the Jerusalem Longitudinal Cohort Study (1990-2010) were assessed at ages 78 and 85 for self-reported PA; ER vis ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of "A Budget Impact Analysis (Bia) Of The Use Of Paricalcitol For The Treatment Of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (Shpt) In End Stage Renal Disease Patients." by Valentina Lorenzoni et al. ...
Sponge kidney has characteristic plain film and urographic findings which are generally regarded as being limited to the medullary pyramids. We describe two groups of patients with renal changes of medullary sponge kidney who show additional renal abnormalities. In the first group there were multiple cortical cysts; in the second there were cavities deep in the medulla, many of which communicated with the calices. Neither of these findings has been described before and we suggest that the spectr ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE We present an unusual complication of epidural analgesia used to facilitate postoperative pain relief while allowing mobilization of the patient. CASE REPORT A 65-year-old woman with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, and degenerative vertebral anatomy underwent resection of the left ureter due to obstructing tumor. The day following surgery, mobilization to an armchair was started, followe ...
572 Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology | October-December 2013 | Vol 29 | Issue 4 dorsomedian septum.[5-7] In our patient first two causes were unlikely, as sufficiently large volume of local anesthetic was injected and the patient had no previous history of central neuraxial block or meningitis which could lead to adhesions. Possibility of misplacement of catheter tip in paravertebral space was also unlikely as only 3 cm of epidural catheter was in the space; therefore local trans ...