Obesity (Total 206878 Papers Found)

Insulin resistance is an important metabolic abnormality often associated with infections, cancer, obesity, and especially non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). We have previously demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha produced by adipose tissue is a key mediator of insulin resistance in animal models of obesity-diabetes. However, the mechanism by which TNF-alpha interferes with insulin action is not known. Since a defective insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase activity has be ...
BACKGROUND The independent effects of diet- or exercise-induced weight loss on the reduction of obesity and related comorbid conditions are not known. The effects of exercise without weight loss on fat distribution and other risk factors are also unclear. OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of equivalent diet- or exercise-induced weight loss and exercise without weight loss on subcutaneous fat, visceral fat skeletal muscle mass, and insulin sensitivity in obese men. DESIGN Randomized, control ...
BACKGROUND South Asians have a muscle-thin but adipose body phenotype and high rates of obesity-related disease. Adult body composition may be predictable in early life. OBJECTIVE Anthropometric indexes of adult body composition were examined in relation to birth size and body mass index (BMI) during childhood. DESIGN A population-based cohort of 1526 men and women aged 26-32 y in Delhi, India, who were measured sequentially from birth until 21 y of age were followed up. Adult weight, height ...
Obesity results from chronic deregulation of energy balance, which may in part be caused by stress. Our objective was to investigate the effect of acute and psychological stress on food intake, using the eating in the absence of hunger paradigm, in normal and overweight men and women (while taking dietary restraint and disinhibition into account). In 129 subjects (BMI = 24.5 +/- 3.4 kg/m(2) and age = 27.6 +/- 8.8 years), scores were determined on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (dietary re ...
BACKGROUND Gastric bypass and adjustable gastric banding are the 2 most commonly performed bariatric procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes, quality of life, and costs of laparoscopic gastric bypass versus laparoscopic gastric banding. STUDY DESIGN Between 2002 and 2007, 250 patients with a body mass index of 35 to 60 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to gastric bypass or gastric banding. After exclusion, 111 patients underwent gastric bypa ...
Lymphoma patients often exhibit abnormal lipid metabolism. Recent evidence, however, suggests that a decrease in circulating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) may occur during lymphomagenesis, reflecting underlying etiology such as inflammation. We investigated the relationship between prediagnostic HDL-C and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. At baseline, serum HDL-C and total cholesterol concentrations from fasting blood, ...
This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure ...
Obesity rates in the United States have been growing rapidly in recent years. Whereas 15 percent of Americans were obese in 1980 (defined as having a body mass index of at least 30), 34 percent were obese in 2004 (Center for Disease Control 2007). The time series of obesity rates in the United States, plotted in Figure 1 (solid line), reveals that the rate of increase over the past quarter-century has been substantially greater than during the preceding two decades. Medical research has linked o ...
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is present in up to one-third of the general population and in the majority of patients with metabolic risk factors such as obesity and diabetes. Insulin resistance is a key pathogenic factor resulting in hepatic fat accumulation. Recent evidence demonstrates NAFLD in turn exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance and often precedes glucose intolerance. Once hepatic steatosis is established, other factors, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfuncti ...
Background:Adiponectin is an abundantly expressed adipocyte-specific protein, whose level is decreased in obesity, and which appears to be a key participant in developing inflammation, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined whether the relationship between adiponectin and inflammatory markers, insulin resistance and MetS was independent of obesity.Methods and results:The study was performed in 1094 men and women, aged 27–77 years, from a representative community populati ...
Both glucocorticoid and insulin are known to have an anabolic effect on lipogenesis. Acetyl-CoA, an intermediate product of glycolysis, is supplied for fatty acid synthesis when carbohydrate intake is sufficient. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), consisting of two isoenzymes ACC1 and ACC2, mediates the conversion from acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, and thus plays a key role for the regulation of lipogenesis. In this study, we surveyed the effects of glucocorticoid and insulin on the transcriptional acti ...
Motivational interviewing, a directive, patient-centred counselling approach focused on exploring and resolving ambivalence, has emerged as an effective therapeutic approach within the addictions field. However, the effectiveness of motivational interviewing in weight-loss interventions is unclear. Electronic databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials evaluating behaviour change interventions using motivational interviewing in overweight or obese adults. Standardized ...
PURPOSE Given that smoking affects body mass index (BMI) and survival, stratification by smoking status may be required to determine the true prognostic impact of BMI. Although obesity increases risk for developing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), the prognostic influence of obesity and its potential modification by smoking status is unknown in this disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS All patients (N = 778) underwent potentially curative esophagectomy. BMI was calculated using measured height and we ...
OBJECTIVE The autonomic nervous system is assumed to have a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. In this study, we evaluated the autonomic system by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) in obese children. METHODS Thirty-two obese and 30 healthy children (mean ages: 11.6±2.0 years and 11.0±2.9 years, respectively) were enrolled in the study. Obesity was defined as a body mass index higher than 97th percentile for age- and gender-specific reference values. All participants were free of an ...
OBJECTIVE Inhibition of the Na(+)-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) is currently being pursued as an insulin-independent treatment for diabetes; however, the behavioral and metabolic consequences of SGLT2 deletion are unknown. Here, we used a SGLT2 knockout mouse to investigate the effect of increased renal glucose excretion on glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic β-cell function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS SGLT2 knockout mice were fed regular chow or a high-fat diet ( ...
AIM Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a multipotent cell type that can differentiate into non-hematopoietic cells, such as adipocytes. Adipocyte tissue is central to the regulation of energy balance. Two functionally different types of fat are present in mammals. White adipose tissue is the primary site for triglyceride storage, while brown adipose tissue is specialized in energy expenditure. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) controls several aspects ...
Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) is a major physiological inhibitor of fibrinolysis, with its plasma levels correlating with the risk for myocardial infarction and venous thrombosis. The regulation of PAI-1 transcription by endothelial cells (ECs), a major source of PAI-1, remains incompletely understood. Adipocytes also produce PAI-1, suggesting possible common regulatory pathways between adipocytes and ECs. Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR)gamma is a ligand ...
Objective. To estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central adiposity in Mexico, and to explore trends compared to the previous Mexican National Health Survey (ENSA 2000) and to Mexican-Americans. Material and Methods. The Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) was used to describe overweight, obesity and central adiposity. Trends over time were assessed using the ENSA 2000 and by comparing the ENSANUT 2006 results to those of Mexican-Americans using the Un ...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW This review presents recent data on joint injury as the cause of osteoarthritis development in young adults and proposes and discusses a model that highlights how joint injury and other risk factors may contribute to osteoarthritis development through two different pathways: joint-related mechanisms and deconditioning of the musculoskeletal system. RECENT FINDINGS Knee osteoarthritis in young adults is common after knee injury. In women who sustained an anterior cruciate liga ...
BACKGROUND We investigated the effects of daily palatinose intake on the risk factors of metabolic syndrome in sedentary non-obese Japanese adults. METHODS Japanese adults (40 females and 10 males, age: 53 +/- 9 years, range: 31-72 years old) were randomized into two groups for a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study and given either 40 g/day palatinose-blended sugar (PS group) or 40 g/day sucrose (S group) in their diet for 12 weeks. RESULTS After the intervention, the insulin ...
Over the past 20 years obesity has become a worldwide concern of frightening proportion. The World Health Organization estimates that there are over 400 million obese and over 1.6 billion overweight adults, a figure which is projected to almost double by 2015. This is not a disease restricted to adults - at least 20 million children under the age of 5 years were overweight in 2005 (WHO 2006). Overweight and obesity lead to serious health consequences including coronary artery disease, stroke, ty ...
Chronic administration of leptin has been shown to reduce adiposity through energy intake and expenditure. The present study aims to examine how acute central infusion of leptin regulates peripheral lipid metabolism, as assessed by markers indicative of their mobilization and utilization. A bolus infusion of 1 microg/rat leptin into the third cerebroventricle increased the expression of mRNA for hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), an indicator of lipolysis, in white adipose tissue (WAT). This was ac ...
Little information is available regarding how body fatness and cardio/respiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with serum vaspin. The purpose of the study was to investigate the combined effect of body mass index (BMI) and CRF on serum vaspin in Korean young men. In a cross-sectional study, we examined 490 Korean young men (mean age 23.8 ± 2.5 years) who were voluntarily recruited. Body fatness and fasting levels of serum insulin, adiponectin, and vaspin were measured. CRF was quantified as ...
Drawing from cumulative disadvantage theory, the health consequences of obesity are considered in light of the accumulation of risk factors over the life course. Two forms of compensation are also examined to determine if the risk due to obesity is persistent or modifiable. Analyses make use of data from a national survey to examine the consequences of obesity on disability among respondents 45 years of age or older, tracked across 20 years (N = 4,106). Results from tobit models indicate that ob ...
The diabetes-associated changes in regional brain norepinephrine (NE) concentrations and related adrenergic receptor types were correlated with changes in blood glucose levels and body weight (obesity) in 4-16-week-old C57BL/KsJ (db/db) mice relative to corresponding age-matched control (+/?) parameters. Regional brain (i.e. frontal cortex, septal area, amygdala, hypothalamus and medulla) NE levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and compared to the associated changes i ...
We determined the genetic contribution of 18 anthropometric and metabolic risk factors of type 2 diabetes using a young healthy twin population. Traits were measured in 240 monozygotic (MZ) and 138 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs aged 18 to 34 years. Twins were recruited from the Belgian population-based East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey, which is characterised by its accurate zygosity determination and extensive collection of perinatal and placental data, including information on chorionicity. H ...
The inflammatory factor C-reactive protein (CRP) and the fibrinolytic variables fibrinogen and plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1) are associated with long-term cardiovascular morbidity. To determine the contribution of body adiposity (BMI), insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], and glycemia (HbA(1c) [A1C]) to the levels of these inflammatory and fibrinolytic variables in recently diagnosed (<or=3 years), drug-naive, type 2 diabetic subjects (fasting p ...
The role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in adipocyte differentiation is not completely understood. Here we reported that an AMPK inhibitor, compound C, significantly inhibited adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in a dose dependent manner, and this inhibitory effect was primarily effective in the initial stage of differentiation. Compound C prevented the mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) of preadipocytes, probably by inhibiting expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)beta ...
The balance of protein versus lipid reserves utilization in fasting animals depends on their initial adiposity, a high prefasting adiposity being associated with an efficient protein sparing during fasting. Yet it remains unclear if the level of energy expenditure influences the efficiency of body protein sparing. We examined the effect of a high energy demand on body reserve mobilization in barn owls (Tyto alba) fasting in the cold (5 °C). Changes in body composition of captive birds were dete ...
The aim of this study was to determine the independent contribution of previously reported risk factors for adult overweight and obesity. A cross-sectional (n=537) and a longitudinal (n=283; 6-year follow-up period) analysis was performed for nine risk factors for overweight and obesity assessed in adult participants (aged 18-64 years) of the Quebec Family Study (QFS). The main outcome measure was overweight/obesity, defined as a BMI>or=25 kg/m2. Using logistic regression analysis adjusted fo ...
In addition to being a part of the metabolic fatty acid fuel cycle, butyrate is also capable of inducing growth arrest in a variety of normal cell types and senescence-like phenotypes in gynecological cancer cells, inhibiting DNA synthesis and cell growth in colonic tumor cell lines, suppressing hTERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity in human prostate cancer cells, and inducing stem cell differentiation and apoptosis by DNA fragmentation. It regulates gene expression by inhibiting histone ...
OBJECTIVE The effects of type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) in rodents fed with low-fat diets were demonstrated in previous studies. Fish oil is also reported to reduce body fat. In the current study, the effects of high fat and fish oil on HAM-RS2 feeding in rats were investigated. DESIGN AND METHODS Rats were fed 0 or 27% (weight) HAM-RS2 with low (15% energy) or high fat (42% energy) diets that included 0 or 10% (energy) tuna oil to test the effect of HAM-RS2 in diet- ...
BACKGROUND The prevalence of obesity in the United States has increased in recent decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of obesity in patients undergoing primary total elbow arthroplasty. METHODS From 1987 to 2006, 723 primary semiconstrained, linked total elbow arthroplasties were performed in 654 patients. The average patient age (and standard deviation) at the time of surgery was 62.3 ± 13.7 years, with 550 total elbow arthroplasties (76%) performed in women. Total e ...
Methodological advances now permit human biologists to more effectively monitor energy dynamics in traditional societies. This study examines the nutritional ecology and energetics of semisubsistence herders of Siberia (Evenki) during a single season of their annual cycle (late summer). Total energy expenditure (TEE) among adults, as measured by daily heart-rate monitoring, is greater in Evenki men (TEE = 11.9 ± 2.8 MJ/d in men and 8.8 ± 2.1 MJ/d in women; P < 0.001), a pattern that reflect ...
OBJECTIVE Examine factors implicated in gestational weight gain (GWG) in low-income overweight and obese women. DESIGN Qualitative study. SETTING Community-based perinatal center. PARTICIPANTS Eight focus groups with women (black = 48%, white non-Hispanic = 41%, and Hispanic = 10%) in the first half (n = 12) and last half of pregnancy (n = 10) or postpartum (n = 7), 2 with obstetrician-gynecologists (n = 9). PHENOMENON OF INTEREST Barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and GWG withi ...
Oral naltrexone extended-release/bupropion extended-release (naltrexone ER/bupropion ER; Contrave(®), Mysimba(™)) is available as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity in adults with an initial body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 30 kg/m(2) (i.e. obese) or a BMI of ≥ 27 kg/m(2) (i.e. overweight) in the presence of at least one bodyweight-related comorbidity, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension or dyslipidaemia. In 56-week phase III trials in these patient ...
The sequencing of the human genome has driven the study of human biology in a significant way and enabled the genome-wide study to elucidate the molecular basis of complex human diseases. Recently, the role of microbiota on human physiology and health has received much attention. The influence of gut microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microbiota) in obesity has been demonstrated, which may pave the way for new prophylactic and therapeutic strategies such as bacteriotherapy. The signif ...
The relationship between eating speed and the thermic effect of food (TEF) remains unclear. We investigated the difference in the TEF when meals containing the same amount of energy were eaten in 5 min (fast eating) or 15 min (regular eating). Subjects were nine non-obese young women. Following a 350 kcal (1464 kJ) meal, energy expenditure and autonomic nervous system activity were measured. The frequency of mastication was also calculated. The TEF for the 15-min period after the start of eating ...
OBJECTIVE Evidence indicates that estrogen depresses hepatic lipid oxidation. We tested the hypothesis that estradiol (E(2)) treatment depresses transcription of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (Cpt 1) mRNA and increases adiposity. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES Six ovariectomized female rats were given a subcutaneous pellet of E(2) (5 mg/d), and six were given placebo. Rats were pair-fed by group for 18 days. Body composition was assessed chemically: mRNA for liver Cpt 1, adipose tissue unc ...
BACKGROUND A current prevalence and relevant risk factors for impaired fasting glucose (IFG) have been reported by various ethnic groups and countries. By contrast, nationwide data for the incidence of IFG in Taiwan have not been presented in the past 15 years. The aim for this manuscript was to estimate the prevalence of IFG and associated risk factors in the population of Taiwan. METHODS For this cross-sectional research, we used a nationally representative sample (N = 2604) obtained from th ...
BACKGROUND Driving is a common part of modern society, but its potential effects on health are not well understood. PURPOSE The present cross-sectional study (n = 37,570) examined the associations of driving time with a series of health behaviors and outcomes in a large population sample of middle-aged and older adults using data from the Social, Economic, and Environmental Factor Study conducted in New South Wales, Australia, in 2010. METHODS Multiple logistic regression was used in 2013 to ...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW This review is an update on recent findings regarding early growth patterns and later obesity. These data are important because the potential programming of obesity in early life provides hope for new prevention strategies targeting early growth for long-term benefits. RECENT FINDINGS Recent findings regarding the association of childhood or adulthood obesity with fetal growth, gestational weight gain, maternal diabetes, or infancy weight gain are reviewed. Some related outco ...
INTRODUCTION The occurrence of postoperative incisional hernia is more frequent after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation compared with other transplanted parenchymal organs. These complications are especially dangerous in this patient population, because they can compromise the survival of the transplanted organ. METHODS We performed a retrospective review of a series of adult patients with incisional herniae after 23 consecutive simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantations between ...
OBJECTIVE Obese patients have vascular dysfunction related to impaired nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilation and enhanced endothelin (ET)-1 activity. Obestatin is a gastrointestinal peptide with favorable metabolic actions linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes; it has also been shown to exert cardiovascular benefits in experimental models by producing vascular relaxation via specific activation of endothelium-dependent NO signaling. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that obestatin ...
The recently discovered protein, leptin, which is secreted by fat cells, has been implicated in regulation of feed intake or energy balance and the neuroendocrine axis in rodents, humans and large domestic animals. Leptin was first identified as the gene product found to be deficient in the obese (ob/ob) mouse. Administration of leptin to ob/ob mice restored reproduction as well as reducing feed intake and causing weight loss. The leptin receptor (LR) which has been cloned and is a member of the ...
Effects of large (LA; 400 min/wk) and moderate (MA; 200 min/wk) amounts of endurance exercise in combination with weight training (3 d/wk) were compared with the effects of no exercise (C) in 23 obese females after a 12-wk, 3360-kJ/d very-low-energy diet (VLED). The LA group lost 6.5 kg more weight, mainly as fat (6.4 kg), than the C group (P < 0.05). No measurable differences were found among groups for decreases in resting metabolic rate (-729 to -1233 kJ/d; NS) or fat-free mass (-2.9 to -3 ...
We were very enthused to read an interesting article in Diabetes Care (1) that shows that increased insulin resistance in puberty actually starts as many as 3 to 4 years prepubertally, and more than 50% of this variance is unaccounted for by fat percentage, IGF-1, or age of the individual. We would also like to point out a study by Bavdekar et al. (2) that found increased insulin resistance in 8-year-old children from India; most of them were prepubertal and had increased insulin resistance, whi ...